We have already written about definitions and components of the technological process in this articlehttps://optimes.syneo.pl/czym-polega-proces-technologiczny-produkcji-sa-etapy/.
This time we present a few words about the types of technological processes, supporting examples of production companies from the textile and chemical industry.
Types of technological processes
Like most of the issues that we face in connection with production, so the technological processes are very different and classified in many ways. We will quote a few of the most common ones.
Depending on the means of work used, the technological processes are specified:
manual – performed with the use of hand tools and devices,
– machinery – require the use of machinery and mechanical devices,
apparatus – use laboratory equipment for processes or operations, such as vapor deposition or diffusion,
computer-aided – from Computer Aided Manufacturing – CAM,
computer integrated – with Computer Integrated Manufacturing – CIM.
We can also meet with another division – due to the way of work, and here the continuous and periodic process is distinguished.
The continuous technological process takes place under specific conditions, when the supply of materials and collection of products takes place at the same time and does not require a break. Its advantages are: no interruptions in production, ease of automation due to constancy of parameters, less complicated mechanization, as well as low variability of the quality of manufactured products. The profitability depends mainly on the production volume. It is assumed that the use of installations in continuous motion is profitable when the production volume exceeds 1000 Mg / year, and does not bring profits if it is less than 100 Mg / year. Continuous processes occur in the chemical, cement, energy, pharmaceutical and food industries.
An example will be the production of plastic bottles, which takes place in a continuous system. First, raw material is sucked into the silo (reservoir) in the form of granules (balls shape). The material is so-called PET, i.e. polyethylene terephthalate, which is heated to a high temperature between 250 and 300 deg. C and liquefied. The rotating snail in the cylinder moves the material towards the nozzles like a piston. In turn, the nozzles inject the raw material into molds. For the product to be created, two halves of the injection mold are needed, which after cooling and solidification of the raw material separate and release the resulting shape. Then the molds close and wait for the next dose of plastic. In this way a preform is formed.
The carton with such preforms is moved to another machine, which takes preforms or they must be applied by the worker to the threads. Tiles with preforms placed on the threads move and are first heated to a temperature of about 80 ° C, under which the material becomes elastic, and later they reach two halves of the molds, where they are blown. In the production of bottles, machines are used that simultaneously inject and blow plastic.
The second type – a periodic (periodic) technological process, thanks to its cyclical repeatability, makes the raw materials for particular stages of production delivered at intervals of time. This is due to the concept, e.g. when it is necessary to wait until the production of the blank ends on the previous machine and when not every product passes through this process step. Automation of the periodic process is a challenge of today’s world and production workers are still needed for it.
Periodic processes are typical for the electromechanical, automotive, metallurgy, clothing and printing industries.
For example – in a company producing nonwovens we sometimes have to deal with a machine that is not always included in the production process, and is called a calender. Calendering is the process of forming products from polymeric materials. It aims to reduce the volume of the nonwoven fabric, strengthen it, solidify it and increase the length slightly.
Activities of the technological process
The stages involved in the technological processes must be designed in a logical and effective manner. A lot depends on them, that’s why it’s worth getting ready for it. It is extremely important to prepare documentation specifying the nature, type and time of work, as well as regarding the machines and materials used, along with their quantities necessary for manufacturing.
There are three basic types of activities: management, main and auxiliary.
Activities related to the management concern correct strategy and logistics. It is easier to use ready-made and proven solutions of production systems.
Ancillary activities (indirect) deal with quality control, maintaining the proper condition of objects, maintenance and storage.
Basic activities make up the stages of product creation, starting with its design, through production, ending with sales.
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