Unit production is one of three types of production, separated by the quantity of produced goods, among mass production as well as mass production: semi-serial, medium-lot and mass-series. It is the production of single or small amounts of products. Unit production is the production of unique and unique products, in this type of production each product is a separate, individual whole. During this type of production, machines are not used, or they are used to a small extent – they are usually unique or not very popular machines. The most important features of unit production are:
- using a lot of human hands;
- the rationality of automating product quality control processes;
- a large amount of production in progress;
- decentralization of operational planning and production management;
- there is no possibility of applying statistical principles in the work management process;
- workplace organization in accordance with the specificity of production;
Unit production is also characterized by high costs, most of the work is done manually or with the help of specific tools. Employees involved in this type of production must have special education, because they perform a variety of tasks that are constantly changing along with the specifics of the subject. The production range is very wide and it is characterized by minimal repeatability. This type of production is most often found in industry and crafts. In industry, this type of production is most often used in the production of clothing patterns. In the craft, it is a kind that is always repeatable, but in a different size, a color from a different texture with a different pattern. Unit production is most often used to produce unique and unique individual items usually on order, eg ship production, house construction, measuring production of shoes or clothes. This type of production is used in large enterprises, eg in shipyards and in small ones, eg in tailoring plants. Lack of clear production flows can cause that many machines are not currently working and others are overloaded. This type of production also occurs when the production plan has been poorly thought out, or the need for some good is too small to involve large production companies in production. Producers dealing in unit production are a very specific group because they often have direct contact with the client. Conversations are conducted in order to improve the product design, it is worth remembering that the project may change even during the production process. The unit production emphasizes the fulfillment of unique customer wishes, regardless of their content. Unit production has many drawbacks and advantages, just like any production.
The disadvantages of unit production are:
- long waiting time for the product due to the serial cycle used in production;
- no specialization;
- large unit production costs;
The advantages of unit production are:
- the ability to make individual, unique products in small quantities;
- high qualifications of the crew members performing the order;
- the ability to adjust the level of employment to the quality of production;
- production capacity;
It is also worth mentioning that there are also two other types of production. The production type is due to the changeover frequency of the work station. Apart from the unit production, there are also mass and serial productions. Mass production is characterized by long-term production of consumer goods. Production is also characterized by unchanging saturation of individual production stages for a longer period of time, e.g. year, month, season, and several years. Another type of production is serial production. This type of production is characterized by the production of goods in large series or lots. Serial production is unique or one-time, repeatable only and only in the period of repeatability – eg every month or quarter, serial production can also be rhythmic or non-rhythmic. Depending on the number of pieces produced, a distinction is made between: small lot production (from 25 to 50 pieces), medium lot (from 5 to 25 parts), high-volume (from 2 to 5, sometimes up to 10 pieces).
Unit production – characteristics
Unit production is mainly characterized by the production of unique and exceptional goods. Among the mass and serial production, it is distinguished by the number of orders produced at a given time. This type of production can occur regardless of the size of the order, its characteristics and type. Not depending also on the specifics and size of the manufacturer. Shipyards that deal with the construction of ships may at the moment produce the necessary part to be able to repair the ship, then it is a unit production, at a time created a single part. Smaller companies, such as a tailor shop or a person running an unregistered business, qualified in their trade, can create one and unique thing for the client’s order. This type of production usually appears in people dealing with, for example, handicrafts. We are not always able to fully repeat what we have created, so it is a unit production.
Nowadays, each type of production is popular, but mass production is on a pedestal. People do not focus on what they have and what it looks like, they want to have something quickly and easily, that’s why they decide on mass things. Many of us do not appreciate what is created by individual productions, products are individual, refined and created with the highest quality products. The unit production is unique and professional. Manufacturers take care of the customer individually, help him make a decision and carry out every stage of production. If you have any questions about individual production stages or you do not know which one to decide on, we invite you to contact us at the mailbox: email@example.com as well as at the phone number: 517 827 436.